Other Christmas food and Drink, as well as the roast meats and sweet delicacies, the well-to-do Elizabethans would have enjoyed. Christmas pudding a pudding made from meat, spices and oatmeal and then cooked in the gut of a boar. Brussels Sprouts The wonderful Brussels Sprout made its debut in England in the late 1580s. Gingerbread made from bread, ginger, spices, sugar and wine. This made a stiff paste which was then moulded. Mulled wine wine heated and infused with sugar and spices. Syllabub a hot milk drink flavoured with rum or wine and spices. Lambswool a drink made from mixing hot cider, sherry or ale, apples and spices.

The banqueting or Sweet meat course. This course was another way in which the host of hond the Christmas feast could flaunt their wealth, their status and their creativity. They would have already impressed their visitors with their roast meats and now they would use sweet delicacies to do the same. Sugar was a open luxury cooking ingredient in Tudor times and was rather expensive, so an array of sweet delicacies would impress the guests. Delicacies on display would have included. Leech a sweet made from milk, sugar and rose-water, which was cut into cubes. It was then displayed as a chequerboard, with some of the leech left plain and other cubes gilded. Collops of Bacon a collop was a rasher of bacon but these collops were crafted from ground almonds and sugar, a bit like our present day marzipan. Sugar-plate sugar-plate was made from sugar, egg white and gelatin, and then crafted to look like walnuts, eggs and other food items. Gilded fruit Fruit like lemons were gilded and used to decorate the banquet table. The marchpane this arrangement made from almond paste which was iced or gilded and then decorated with sugar figures and crystallised fruit, was the centrepiece of this course.

what kind of animal is a leech
The, leech, barometer rebecca giggs Granta

Accompaniments to the met roast meat included plum porridge, mince pies and frumenty, a pottage made from boiled, cracked wheat. The Christmas meal was washed down with beer, a popular drink in Tudor times when water was not fit to drink. The following poem from 1573 gives us a good idea of the Elizabethan Christmas. Good husband and huswife, now chiefly be glad, Things handsome to have, as they ought to be had. They both do provide, against Christmas do come, to welcome their neighbors, good cheer to have some. Good bread and good drink, a good fire in the hall, Brawn, pudding, and souse, and good mustard withal. Beef, mutton, and pork, and good pies of the best, pig, veal, goose, and capon, and turkey well drest, Cheese, apples and nuts, and good carols to hear, As then in the country is counted good cheer. What cost to good husband, is any of this? Good household provision only it is: Of other the like, i do leave out a many, that costeth the husband never a penny. Thomas Tusser, 500 points of Husbandry, 1573.

what kind of animal is a leech
Leech (comg) - wikipedia

Leech (comg) - wikipedia


I have already written about the tudor Christmas traditions over at The Anne boleyn Files, but I thuis thought it would be interesting to research Elizabethan Christmas traditions and think back to how Christmas was celebrated in Elizabeths reign, rather than the whole tudor period. There was much celebration in England when Elizabeth I came to the throne. Elizabeth was a vibrant young woman replacing her half-sister Mary i who had been solemn and bitter and who had brought nothing but persecution, cruelty and hardship to England. Marys court had been solemn and serious whereas Elizabeths court was extravagant, luxurious and full of dancing and entertainment, and this carried over into the Christmas celebrations. The Christmas feast, christmas was a time to eat, drink and be merry, a time to celebrate and enjoy a little luxury. Those families who could afford a christmas feast would celebrate it in style with foods like roast goose, turkey or beef, and Brawn and Mustard (roast wild boar with mustard). Turkey had been eaten at Christmas by some people during Henry viiis reign, as it was introduced into England at that time, but it had not yet superseded goose which was still the traditional meat of Christmas day for those who could afford. In 1588, Elizabeth i ordered the whole of England to eat goose for their Christmas Dinner to celebrate Englands victory over the Armada because it was the first meal she ate after the navy had defeated Spains ships.

What is, leech, therapy?


Aquatic leeches, particularly limnatis nilotica, may enter the body in drinking water. Some may enter the excretory openings of persons who bathe in infested waters. Nilotica, which inhabits lakes and streams of southern Europe, north Africa, and the middle east, attains lengths of up to 12 cm (4.75 inches but younger, smaller specimens are most likely to enter the body. When ingested with drinking water, they may first attach themselves to the linings of the nose or throat and then be inhaled into the lungs. Tyrannobdella rex, a member of the family Praobdellidae and native to remote parts of the upper Amazon river in Peru, appears to prefer the mucous membranes found in the nasal cavity of mammals. This leech seeks out its victims as they bathe, making an attachment by means of a single jaw made up of eight large teeth. A person infected with many such leeches may suffer from anemia resulting from blood loss. In external wounds secondary infection is more likely to occur than anemia. Leeches can cause suffocation and death of the host by blocking the breathing passages; in Asia, in particular, domestic animals commonly die in this way).

what kind of animal is a leech
Leech - definition of leech by The Free dictionary

Leeches have also been used to prevent excessive blood buildup following certain surgical procedures (e.g., reattachment of severed fingers). In addition to,. Medicinalis of Europe, the Algerian dragon. Troctina ) was used. Gnathobdella ferox was commonly varicosette used in Asia.

Medicinalis was introduced into, north America, it established itself there as a wild species. It grows to 10 cm (4 inches) in length and is green, with four to six brown stripes. Other land leeches that attack humans are primarily of the genus. Haemadipsa in Asia, the Philippines, the, east Indies, and Madagascar. Leeches of the genus. Philaemon singapore are parasitic on humans in Australia.

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European medicinal leech hirudo medicinalis is used to prevent blood clots following surgery; another chemical isolated from Amazonian leeches is used to dissolve existing blood clots. Land leeches await their victim in damp vegetation, poising one end in the air. The honing victim is often unaware of being bitten until blood is discovered running from the wound; blood flow may continue because of the anticoagulant still present. Many leeches that attack humans belong to the family Gnathobdellidae. Some species have been used medically for centuries; in Europe the use of leeches to drain off blood reached its height of popularity in the 19th century. Diseases commonly treated with leeches included mental illness, tumours, skin disease, gout, and whooping cough. A common treatment for headache was to apply several leeches to each temple and allow them to draw blood.

what kind of animal is a leech
Here's, what, happens When you swallow a, leech

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The eggs are laid in a cocoon, which may be deposited on land or in water. Development and growth are direct, without a free-living larval stage. Aquatic leeches may feed on the blood of fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals, or they may eat snails, insect larvae, and worms. True land leeches feed only darm on the blood of mammals. Three jaws set with sharp teeth make a y-shaped incision in the flesh. The leechs saliva contains substances that anesthetize the wound area, dilate the blood vessels to increase blood flow, and prevent the blood from clotting. The anticoagulant hirudin, which is extracted from the body tissues of the.


Some species of leeches are predators of other animals, some eat organic debris, and others are parasitic. Read More syndrome on This Topic annelid the earthworms (Oligochaeta and the leech es (Hirudinea). Leeches breathe through the skin. The digestive system contains a crop, or pouch, in which food can be stored for several months. One to four pairs of eyes are located at the anterior end. Individuals are hermaphroditic ; that is, functional reproductive organs of both sexes occur in the same individual. Leeches are not self-fertilizing, however, for the sperm of one individual fertilizes only the eggs of other individuals.

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Leech, (subclass Hirudinea any of hard about 650 species of segmented worms (phylum Annelida) characterized by a small sucker, which contains the mouth, at the anterior end of the body and a large sucker located at the posterior end. All leeches have 34 body segments. The length of the body ranges from minute to about 20 cm (8 inches) or even longer when the animal stretches. Leeches occur primarily in fresh water and on land. Members of the order Rhynchobdellida occur in the sea as well as in fresh water. One member of this order, the giant Amazon leech (. Haementaria ghilianii can grow to a half metre (about 18 inches) in length. This leech uses its 15-cm (6-inch) proboscis as a hypodermic needle to suck blood from its host.

What kind of animal is a leech
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